Dr Klenner modified and improved his protocol over many decades. Coenymated forms of vitamins are not included in Klenner’s protocol because they were not an option at that time. Since the 1980s research has brought new discoveries in the area of B vitamins and newer information suggests strongly that many people need to take only the coenzymated forms of some B vitamins, and that synthetic folic acid should be strictly avoided. While I still support the Klenner approach overall, I feel the following points need to be made:
* Klenner recommends 6 mg a day of folate as folic acid. In fact folic acid should be avoided and high doses can cause real problems including increased cancer risk – especially for those with the MTHFR polymorphism. It makes sense in 2013 to omit all folic acid and instead to only take active forms of folate such as calcium folinate and methylfolate. See the main B vitamin paper for more on MTHFR.
* Klenner recommends very large doses of vitamin B1 as thiamine and B2 riboflavin. It makes sense in 2013 to instead take active and preferably also sublingual forms of B1 and B2. These forms don’t require conversion before use and so do not put as much strain on the body as does taking very large amounts of uncoenzymated vitamins. It seems logical that a much smaller dose of B1 and B2 may suffice in this very efficient form. At the very least some of each form could be taken so the overall dosage of the non-coenzymated forms could be very much lowered.
* Klenner recommends very large doses of vitamin B6 as pyridoxine. Substituting very large doses of pyridoxine with a far smaller amount of P5P seems a much better and safer idea. 20 mg of P5P is the equivalent of 100 mg of pyridoxine.
* Klenner recommends injections of B12 as cyanocobalamin. Injections of this form of B12 are no longer used by the best nutritional doctors and instead activated forms of B12 such as hydroxycobalamin, methylcobalamin and dibencozide are given, usually sublingually but sometimes by injection or IV.
* Klenner recommends vitamin E as 1600 IU d-alpha tocopheryl acetate. A more modern approach would be to use 800 IU or more of the non-acetate form and to combine it with appropriately balanced amounts of the other 7 forms of vitamin E.
* Other: Klenner also recommends B5 as calcium pantothenate instead of pantethine (a superior form), recommends magnesium orotate which is a very poorly absorbed form, and lists vitamin A acetate rather than vitamin A from cod liver oil or similar which may be preferable. The recommendation for B3 as niacin and the rest of the protocol are fine. There is also the question of many newer supplements such as ubiquinol which are not mentioned and which may well be if Klenner were still refining his protocol today.
What I take from reading Klenner’s work now is the importance of B vitamins and a basic nutritional protocol. For the most part I use his listings of supplement types and dosages as interesting historical information and not as a plan to be strictly followed to the letter today. We can also add many good things not even mentioned by Klenner that are useful. I would highly recommend that others do the same. I feel that the resources we have today allow us to improve the quality and safety of the program significantly. This is especially true if you have a high quality nutritional doctor to help you formulate your own best nutritional plan using information such as that provided by Klenner but also newer research and your own test results and responses. I have left intact the information on Klenner’s exact dosages in this paper for informational purposes only.
Dr Klenner and those who continued his work after his death have had a lot of success in treating diseases similar to M.E., such as Multiple Sclerosis and Myasthenia Gravis, with a high-dose B vitamin protocol combined with a general nutritional protocol.
Results are sometimes seen within just a few weeks where the patient was treated while the disease was in the early stages although patients that had been ill for many years sometimes took 5 years or more to respond.
Dr Klenner explains,
Any victim of Multiple Sclerosis who will dramatically flush with the use of nicotinic acid and has not yet progressed to the stage of myelin degeneration, as witnessed by sustained ankle clonus, can be cured with the adequate employment of thiamin, B complex proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. We had patients in wheelchairs who returned to normal activities after five to eight years of treatment.
Considering the safety of this treatment protocol and the similarity of the diseases discussed and studied, and M.E., a reasonably compelling case can be made for its being tried in M.E. also, as well as in other somewhat similar diseases – in combination with high-dose or saturation level vitamin C.
The benefits of correcting any nutritional deficiencies and making sure that the body has all the nutrients it needs to function properly and to have the immune system fully powered up and to heal, are well documented. It is also well documented that a body suffering with a serious infection will have a much higher need for certain nutrients than a person that is healthy.
Dr Klenner’s protocol for Multiple Sclerosis, Myasthenia Gravis and other neurological diseases.
Dr Klenner worked on perfecting his MS and MG protocol for over 30 years. His treatment protocol for Multiple Sclerosis, Myasthenia Gravis and other neurological diseases in 1980 included the following:
Thiamin HCl (Vitamin B1) one gram (1000 mg) taken thirty minutes before meals and at bedtime.
Nicotinic Acid (Niacin; Vitamin B3) 50 mg to 300 mg, depending on flushing of skin, thirty minutes before meals and bed time.
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) 250 mg after meals and bed time.
Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) 100 mg after meals and bed time.
Calcium pantothenate (pantothenate acid/Vitamin B5) one gram after meals and bed time.
Lecithin. 1200 mg one capsule after meals and at bed time.
Vitamin A (palmitate) one 50,000 unit capsule after breakfast and supper.
Vitamin E (d-alpha tocopheryl acetate) 400 I. units. Four capsules at bedtime.
Niacinamide (Vitamin B3 amide) 500 mg. tablets. One after meals.
Magnesium oxide 300 mg tablet. One tablet after meals and before bed time.
Folic acid. Two milligrams after each meal.
Zinc gluconate 10 mg, three times each day. Take several hours after vitamin B2.
Protein supplement containing eighteen amino acids.
Intramuscular injection, given five to seven days each week.: Thiamin HCl, (B1), 400 mg daily, pyridoxine (B6) 150 mg daily, cyanocobalamin (B12) 1500 mcg daily, riboflavin (B2) 75 mg daily, niacinamide (B3) 150 mg daily.
At least 10 – 20 grams of vitamin C daily orally or by IV.
RNA and DNA tablets (100 mg of each, taken one to three times daily) are helpful to some patients.
500 – 1500 mg of inositol.
A higher protein diet is recommended.
Dr Klenner says of B vitamin complex given by IV,
Intravenous medication can be given daily; it should be administered at least twice weekly. Due to sensitivity possibilities, we always have the patient take the intramuscular injections for three weeks before starting intravenous therapy.
Finding a qualified doctor is important. If you still cannot find a qualified doctor, do the best you can by reading as much as possible and buying your own sublingual and coenzymate B vitamin complex tablets and so on. Some aspects of the treatment can be started alone while you continue your search for a helpful doctor.
The importance of vitamin B1
Dr Klenner’s neurological disease treatment protocol strongly emphasises vitamin B1 as it plays an important role in the metabolic cycle, facilitating muscle function and also aids in the remyelination of damaged nerves. Dr Klenner writes,
The importance of thiamin in treating Myasthenia Gravis and Multiple Sclerosis cannot be over-emphasized. Two molecules of thiamin hydrochloride in combination with two molecules of phosphoric acid is cocarboxylase. For the reaction to acetyl coenzyme A plus oxaloacetic acid to continue through to citric acid with the release of coenzyme A, cocarboxylase must be present. If this reaction does not take place, due to one of many factors, there will be no coenzyme A present to react with another molecule of pyruvic acid to set in motion the elements necessary for the continuance of the metabolic cycle. In thiamin deficiency, both pyruvates and lactate accumulate in the blood. Pyruvates also accumulate at the neuro-muscular junction causing cloudy swelling of the distal portion of the nerves. Cocarboxylase, also known as diphosphothiamine, is necessary in the synthesis of acetyl-choline and in the control of its hydrolysis. The activity of choline esterase of serum is also strongly inhibited by cocarboxylase. The chief chemical factor in both diseases is thiamin hydro-chloride. Other fractions of the B-complex are also essential but in lesser amounts.
Myasthenia Gravis is due to genetic fault, most likely involving an intermediate lethal gene or group of genes. Multiple Sclerosis is more complex. The initial pathology is sickness caused by the Coxsackie virus. This virus mimics poliomyelitis, and for many years accounted for thousands of so-called polio cases. This virus, like the polioviruses, can cause paralysis but never permanently. The nerve damage is the result of microscopic hemorrhages in the central nervous system. With the contraction of the scar at the site of bleeding, the vessels carrying nutrients to the nerve cells are virtually clamped off. This leaves nerve tissue, in many instances, alive but not capable of work. As time goes on, this wasting of nerve tissue results in loss of its myelin protection. This is similar to electrical wires that have lost their insulation when exposed to the wear of daily use, or exposure to the elements.
Dr Klenner makes the following comments about the history of thiamine in treating neurological diseases,
In the late thirties, Stern from Columbia University, was employing thiamin hydrochloride intraspinally with astonishing results in Multiple Sclerosis. He reported taking patients to the operating room on a stretcher, and following 30 mg. thiamin given intraspinally, they would walk back to their room. The response was relatively transient, but it led Stern to believe that Multiple Sclerosis was nothing more than vitamin B1 avitaminosis, the modus operandi being damage to the filter bed of the choroid plexus. Stern also found that the effective dose of vitamin B1, when given in the lumbar subarachnoid space, was too close to the lethal dose as was demonstrated in dogs.
Stern’s hypothesis was backed by the knowledge that degeneration of the myelin sheaths of peripheral nerves as well as of the ganglion cells of the brain and spinal cord can be produced in experimental polyneuritis. Similar findings are observed in starvation, even when the supply of thiamin appears to be adequate. One school of thought regards the neurological syndrome of polyneuritis as a functional defect concerned with the neurons. From 30 years of observation, I am certain that in Myasthenia Gravis and Multiple Sclerosis, it is not a functional defect, nor is it due to impaired diffusion which would deny to the total metabolism sufficient quantities of the vitamin to satisfy the requirements of the neuro-muscular systems.
The problem is supply and demand. In this light, Dr. Leon Rosenberg of Yale University Medical School, in working with B vitamins, distinguishes between vitamin-deficiency diseases and vitamin-dependent diseases. He states that the successful treatment of vitamin-dependent diseases requires dosages up to 1,000 times the calculated minimal daily requirement. 1.3 mg. has been established for thiamin hydrochloride which would indicate that in the pathological conditions being considered, the daily requirement would be at least 1300 mg.
Moore, in 1940, published a monograph on the use of high intravenous doses of nicotinic acid for the cure of Multiple Sclerosis. Moore employed a drug combination called Nicobee. This preparation contained 100 mg. nicotinic acid and 60 mg. of thiamin in each 10cc solution. Many of the components of the B-complex must also be administered in varying amounts, along with thiamine hydrochloride, since they too exert a dynamic influence in general metabolism. Many believe that the B vitamins are actually metabolic reagents. Hoagland has referred to them as protective catalysts.
Note that the focus in many of Klenner’s articles is M.S. and M.G., and that while we have no direct evidence that this protocol is successful for M.E. patients, the Klenner protocol has been used in many other neurological diseases with success. The mention of enteroviral infections and the success of this protocol in treating patients with neurological diseases caused by this type of infection also has particular relevance to M.E. as M.E. is also a neurological disease caused by an enterovirus.
Advocates of the Klenner program today consider daily 400 mg vitamin B1 injections as an essential and non-negotiable part of the therapy and that all oral forms are inadequate and will not provide the same level of healing. Purely oral forms of the other vitamins however, seem to be an acceptable substitute.
B1 as sublingual coenzymated thiamine (TDP or TPP) , benfotiamine or liposomal thiamine is the best choice for patients that cannot yet access vitamin B1 injections. High enough doses of these types of B1 may in fact have the same effect as 400 mg of thiamine injected daily. But as yet the research on the success of this substitution and how it should best be done has not been completed and so sticking with the daily injections is seen as the safest way to go.
TPP is a critical link between the glycolytic cycle and its main energy-producing cycle, the Krebs’ cycle, and plays key roles in the Krebs’ cycle itself. TPP participates in the conversion of amino acids into energy and is a key coenzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway, which provides red blood cells with their energy. TPP is also critical in fatty acid synthesis, synthesis of the key neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and for nerve cell membrane function (this is critically important since the nerves’ messages must pass along its cell membrane).
Thiamin diphosphate (TDP), also called thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) or cocarboxylase, is the active, coenzyme form of vitamin B1. It is available in sublingual form as part of a B complex, and singly.
Benfotiamine (belonging to the family of compounds knows as "allithiamines’) is more bioavailable and physiologically active than thiamin. Benfotiamine raises the blood level of TPP, the biologically active coenzyme of thiamine. Benfotiamine controls formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and helps maintain healthy cells in the presence of blood glucose. This synthetic form of vitamin B1 is fat soluble rather than water soluble. Dosage is usually 150 to 1000 mg daily.
The B vitamins have recently become available in a liposomal delivery system. A liposomal B complex product is now available from Livon Labs which contains decent amounts of vitamin B1. The product is called AGE blocker. The downside here is that the B vitamins are not available individually and so it may not be possible to get enough B1 without getting more than needed of the other B vitamins as well as the other nutrients included in the product. Liposomal delivery systems make nutrients very bio-available and so smaller amounts are needed than with oral forms.
The importance of the niacin flush
Taking enough of the flushing form of niacin 3-4 times daily to flush each time is recommended by some doctors. This includes Dr Klenner who includes it as an essential part of his protocol. This dilation of blood vessels helps get the nutrients you are taking to all the parts of the body and brain where they are needed. Dosage should begin at just 25 mg daily and be worked up very slowly. The flush should always be mild and last no longer than 10 minutes.
Dr Klenner writes,
We recommend whichever dose will produce a strong body flush. Niacin dilates the blood vessels, even those that have been compressed by scar tissue, allowing a greater amount of nutrient material to reach the cell laboratory or factor comprising muscles and nerves. This constant, repeated dilatation of the blood vessels acts in the same manner as the dilating urethral catheter to correct constriction. One is chemical, the other is mechanical. Hot fluids taken at the same time as the niacin will enhance the flush. Pyridoxine has been a suggested stimulant. The lack of constant flushing in Multiple Sclerosis is disappointing but not hopeless. It will require a longer time to achieve results.
Some patients will flush sometimes and not at other times, even during a single day. If no flush develops within 45 minutes, the dose should be repeated. A delayed reaction of several hours can occur, and should this be superimposed upon a previous medication, the result could be severe. Do not scratch when itching from niacin. Just press the area with your fingers, or better still, with a cube of ice.
The importance of liver extract injections
Advocates of the Klenner program today consider twice-weekly liver injections as an essential and non-negotiable part of the therapy. Liver contains vitamin B12, iron and vitamins A and D. Dr Klenner explains that liver also, ‘Contains factors still unknown but essential in metabolism.’
Eating some fresh cooked organic grass-fed calf or beef liver each day, or taking a tablespoon or more of a wholefood liver power (placed on the tongue and swallowed quickly with water while holding your nose) or liver extract capsules is recommended for patients that cannot yet access these types of injections. The advantage of the freshly cooked whole liver and liver wholefood powers is that they are not defatted, as are many encapsulated liver products. This means that they still contain all the original fat soluble vitamins such as vitamin A and D.If possible buy non-defatted liver capsules.
Taking some CoQ10 daily is also considered a partial-substitute for large amounts of liver products, according to the Gerson protocol.
The importance of vitamin C
The vitamin C taken daily on this program is very important. Dr Klenner inspired Linus Pauling and Irwin Stone to expand the research on the great benefits of Vitamin C.
Taking B vitamins in activated and/or sublingual forms
In order for B vitamins to be utilized by the body, they must first be converted into their active coenzyme forms by the liver. This conversion takes time and requires metabolic energy, which may be in short supply in M.E.and other diseases.
Where there are problems converting one or more of the B vitamins into their active coenzyme forms by the liver coenzymated sublingual B vitamins will be by far the best choice of B supplement. In studies with chronic alcoholics (a group at high risk of poor liver function) large doses of B vitamins were given by IV. Normally, the administration of these IVs would raise the body’s coenzyme levels, but in the case of liver-impaired alcoholics, it did not. This shows that a compromised liver may not be able to Coenzymate vitamins optimally. Thus when a person cannot convert B vitamins properly, even injections or IVs of non-coenzymated vitamins will have little or no effect. So for some people, the optimum way to take in B vitamins is not by IV or IM but through coenzymated products.
Coenzyme forms of vitamins are biologically identical to those used by the body, making them highly bioavailable, especially when they are also in a sublingual form. Sublingual tablets are absorbed rapidly into the highly capillarised tissues found in the cheeks and under the tongue and enter the bloodstream intact, without the risk of being degraded or diminished by the digestive system. Taking coenzymate and sublingual forms of B vitamins also conserves valuable metabolic energy and reduces the load on the (probably very overworked already) liver. Vitamins taken in this form will also be faster acting.
Smaller doses are needed when the coenzymate forms of vitamins are taken and when nutrients are taken sublingually, as compared to taking standard oral forms of a vitamin.
How long should this program be continued
Benefits may be lost if this treatment is stopped too soon and so it should be continued as long as is necessary. A more scaled down program may be necessary life-long once the intensive program is completed.
Dr Klenner notes that ‘Early M.S. cases will respond quickly’ and cites examples where the protocol has taken 2 weeks to work in some early cases, and 5 - 10 years of constant treatment to be effective in longer-term cases. One paper makes the statement that it may take a year of treatment for every two years spent ill with M.S. for the full benefits of treatment to be seen. (He also notes that a cut-down version of his treatment protocol may also work but that it may take much longer and not be effective in some cases.)
Patients often report seeing noticeable improvements in their condition within 1 – 6 months of starting the vitamin B1 injections.
For the duration of the full treatment, vitamin C should be kept at 10 – 20 grams daily or at saturation level.
Are there other somewhat similar programs or regimes?
Myers’ cocktail therapy is similar in some ways to the Klenner protocol. Both focus primarily on the B vitamins but the Myer’s cocktail regime does not include injections of liver extract nor high levels of vitamin A and E.
A ‘Myers’ cocktail’ is an IV containing B vitamins, magnesium and calcium in particular amounts. This IV may be taken once or twice weekly or more (along with daily B vitamins and other basic supplements given orally each day). This treatment must be administered by an experienced and qualified practitioner. For more information on this treatment and instructions for doctors on how to make the IV, see the excellent article: Intravenous nutrient therapy: the "Myers' cocktail" by IV vitamin expert Alan R. Gaby. He explains,
All ingredients are drawn into one syringe, and 8-20 mL of sterile water (occasionally more) is added to reduce the hypertonicity of the solution. After gently mixing by turning the syringe a few times, the solution is administered slowly, usually over a period of 5-15 minutes (depending on the doses of minerals used and on individual tolerance), through a 25G butterfly needle. Occasionally, smaller or larger doses than those listed in Table 1 have been used. Low doses are often given to elderly or frail patients, and to those with hypotension. Doses for children are lower than those listed, and are reduced roughly in proportion to body weight. The most commonly used regimen has been 4 mL magnesium, 2 mL calcium, 1 mL each of B12 (as hydroxycobalamin), B6, B5, and B complex, 6 mL vitamin C, and 8 mL sterile water.
As the Myers’ cocktail only contains a relatively small amount of vitamin C, full-strength vitamin C IVs may also be given, perhaps on alternate days.
The Gerson juicing program for cancer and degenerative diseases is similar in some ways to the Klenner protocol, although there are far more differences than similarities. Both consider regular flushing with niacin and injections of liver extract given twice weekly or more as essential to the success of the therapy, and both therapies recommend regular injections of vitamin B12. The differences between the programs are many however. The Gerson program recommends a very low-protein diet, while the Klenner protocol involves a high-protein diet. The Gerson program recommends that very few supplements be taken and places a very large focus on diet (and hourly vegetable juicing), while the Klenner protocol involves large amounts of many different types of supplements and only gives basic dietary advice. The Gerson program recommends only small doses of vitamin C, while the Klenner protocol involves a high dose of vitamin C, and so on.
Both of these programs may also have something to offer the M.E. patient and other patients, whether followed in part or more faithfully. Reading up on both of them is highly recommended.
An important note on the Gerson Protocol: I have some serious reservations about the Gerson Protocol being used for M.E. and question whether:
(a) A very low fat, salt and protein diet is appropriate for M.E. patients for a period of months let alone for 2 years or more. (This goes against the evidence presented by a huge number of reputable health experts and also the evidence of a vast number of M.E. patients and patients with other neurological or mitochondrial diseases that find they feel very unwell if they don’t have a reasonably high protein intake or adequate fat in the diet.)
(b) An 80% raw foods diet is appropriate considering that most M.E. patients have poor digestion caused by poor blood flow to the stomach which can make eating even a small amount of raw food very painful. This would be counter-productive as well, as little would be absorbed.
(c) The direction to avoid so many other important supplements is the best thing for M.E. patients.
(d) Any moderately-severely M.E. affected patient would be well enough to do all the enemas and have the hourly juices required (even if they could afford the full program financially, which is also a big ask) without relapse.
While parts of the program (including upping vegetable and vegetable juice intake daily and supplementing with some of the B vitamins and with liver) make a lot of sense and are mentioned here, this should not necessarily be taken as a recommendation of the full program for M.E. patients or anything other than perhaps cancer patients.
Finding a doctor that can administer the Klenner protocol
Finding a doctor that is knowledgeable about M.E. specifically is extremely difficult. However, finding a doctor that can safely administer nutrients by injection or IV and that is experienced in treating diseases similar to M.E. (such as MS or Lupus etc.) is far less difficult. Use the phone book or the internet to ask various qualified holistic, environmental, or orthomolecular medicine practitioners near you if they offer this therapy and if they are experienced in providing it.
Cautions and other notes on this treatment
Occasionally, high-dose B vitamins may interfere with sleep. If you have trouble getting to sleep at night, try taking your B vitamins as early in the evening as possible and see if this helps.
Betaine trimethylglycine (betaine TMG or TMG) may be included in some B complex formulas. Such products may be best avoided as TMG is often very poorly tolerated in M.E. and can cause severe relapse while the supplement is taken and for a week or so afterwards. If well tolerated however, TMG is a beneficial supplement as it aids in the process of methylation. TMG is probably best taken alone to start with, at very small doses of just 100 - 200 mg.
Dr Atkins warns that women who need to shrink uterine fibroids, or prevent breast cancer recurrences, or deal with endometriosis or fibrocystic breasts should limit supplemental folate to 600 mcg daily.
The Klenner protocol is very low risk, and so the risk to benefit ratio is good. The doses may have to be raised far more slowly in M.E. and possibly some other conditions due to severe supplement tolerance issues, however, and each supplement will be better off being introduced individually rather than all at once
Vitamin B1 given by injection can very occasionally cause an anaphylactic reaction and so injections should always be started at a very low dose. Dr Klenner comments that while this reaction can occur, he has not seen it occur once in all the thousands of patients he treated.
B vitamins given by IV or IM should be given by medical practitioners that have considerable experience in this area. Note that the vitamin B3 injections once recommended by Klenner may cause problems in some patients and so are no longer recommended.
Preservative-free injectable vitamins should be used if at all possible as patients may sometimes react badly to these preservatives.
The information given in this paper is a very cut-down summary of Klenner’s recommendations ONLY. It does not include the various cautions and additional details that are so important to effective and safe treatment. Please read the papers listed below before starting this program.
This paper should be read together with the papers on this site on B vitamins and on vitamin C.
Clinical Guide to the Use of Vitamin C The Clinical Experiences of Frederick R. Klenner, M.D. and Response of Peripheral and Central Nerve Pathology to Mega-Doses of the Vitamin B-Complex and Other Metabolites by Dr Klenner.
The Klenner Protocol for MS article by Dr Klenner. In this two-part series Klenner defines an orthomolecular treatment of MS that has been effectively employed by Dale Humpherys and other patients. (For Humpherys' report, see his article in the December 2005 issue of the Townsend Letter.)
My Multiple Sclerosis: A Real Story presented by Homer. For more information on following the Klenner protocol for MS, including case studies and detailed practical information on the nutrients involved and where to source them, plus links to some of the Klenner protocol doctors accepting patients around the world, this site is highly recommended. See also: Begin the Klenner protocol and Liver Extract Rocks!
Multiple Sclerosis a cure in search of doctors, Dr. F.R. Klenner’s Protocol for MS, The true story of FDA terrorism, MS is not “hopeless” and Update on Dr. Klenner’s treatment for MS by Dale Humpherys in the Townsend Newsletter.
The Benefits of Liver, Cod Liver Oil, and Dessicated Liver by Chris Masterjohn
Calf’s liver information by WH Foods.
Beef liver information by Nutrition Data.
Fire your doctor! : how to be independently healthy by Andrew W. Saul.
Healing the Gerson Way: Defeating Cancer and Other Chronic Diseases by C. Gerson and B. Bishop.
The Gerson Therapy: The Amazing Juicing Programme for Cancer and Other Illnesses by Charlotte Gerson and Morton Walker
This paper on the work of Dr Klenner is designed to be read together with the main HHH B vitamin paper.
“A native of Pennsylvania, Dr. Klenner attended St. Vincent and St. Francis Colleges, where he received his BS and MS degrees in Biology. He graduated magna cum laude and was awarded a teaching fellowship there. He was also awarded the college medal for scholastic philosophy. There followed another teaching fellowship in Chemistry at Catholic University, where he pursued studies for a doctorate in Physiology. Dr. Klenner then migrated to North Carolina and Duke University to continue his studies. Taken in tow by Dr. Pearse, chairman of the department, he was finally persuaded to enter the school of medicine. He completed his studies at Duke University and received his medical degree in 1936.
Dr. Klenner served three years in post-graduate hospital training before embarking on a private practice. Although specializing in diseases of the chest, he continued to do General Practice because of the opportunities it afforded for observations in medicine. His patients were as enthusiastic as he in playing .guinea pigs. to study the action of ascorbic acid.
The first massive doses of ascorbic acid he gave to himself. Each time something new appeared on the horizon, he took the same amount of ascorbic acid to study its effects so as to come up with the answers. Dr. Klenner’s list of honours and professional affiliations is tremendous. He is listed in various Who’s Who registers, and has published many scientific papers throughout his career. Dr. Klenner is a Fellow: The American College of Chest Physicians; Fellow & Diplomate: The International College of Applied Nutrition; Fellow: The American Association for the Advancement of Science; Fellow: The American College of Angiology; Fellow: The American Academy of Family Practice; Fellow: The Royal Society of Health (London); Fellow (Honorary): The International Academy of Preventive and Orthomolecular Medicine; Fellow: International College of Angiology; and Founder-Fellow: American Geriatrics Society.” Response of Peripheral and Central Nerve Pathology to Mega-Doses of the Vitamin B-Complex and Other Metabolites
This treatment works dramatically in M.G. An abbreviated schedule can be effective. One gram thiamin four times a day, niacin, enough to produce a flush four times a day, 200 mg calcium pantothenate four times a day, 100 mg pyridoxine four times a day, 10 grams of C in divided doses, glycine one tablet four times a day. This treatment is effective, but the full therapy will afford more dramatic response. Dr. Klenner felt that most cases (80%) of Multiple Sclerosis had their origin in an illness—probably a coxsackie virus—compatible with a summer “flu”. He mentioned other theories of the etiology of M.S., but was convinced that the scar tissue that forms around the nerves and produces the symptoms “is the end result of microscopic hemorrhages following virus invasion.” He believed that in M.G. the thymus gland was hyperplastic in many cases, and that muscle antibodies might account for others, but the importance of the excessive pyruvates at the neuromuscular junction has to be recognized as the basic cause of the hypotonia. Frederick Klenner M.D. comments abbreviated, summarized and annotated by Lendon H. Smith, M.D.
“Coenzyme A (COA, the active form of pantothenic acid) is in limited supply in M.G. It, COA, intercepts pyruvic acid at the end point of glucose metabolism. Another enzyme, cocarboxylase, splits the carboxyl group (COOH) away from pyruvic acid to form CO2 and free hydrogen. The remaining two carbon fragment (acetate) join with coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A. A high energy package named NADH2 is formed from the carboxyl group from pyruvic acid and a sulfur group from coenzyme A.
Thiamin is important in all this energy production as two molecules of thiamin combined with two molecules of phosphoric acid become cocarboxylase. This enzyme must be present for the continuance of the metabolic cycle. When thiamin is deficient, pyruvates and lactate accumulate, and at the neuromuscular junction the nerve end plate becomes swollen and poorly operative. That same enzyme is necessary for the syntheses of acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter that initiates muscle contraction. “Thiamin deficiency inhibits lactic acid metabolism.” A thiamin deficiency means a cocarboxylase deficiency. Liver enzymes are mainly responsible for the phosphorylation of thiamin to cocarboxylase. Liver disease would obviously reduce this synthesis. “The activity of choline esterase (breaks down acetylcholine) is inhibited by this same double thiamin unit.”
In the conversion of fatty acids to energy some of the same enzymes are necessary: coenzyme A, hydrogen carriers (niacin-adenosine-dinucleotide) and Vitamin C. The latter acts as a hydrogen transport.
He puts Myasthenia Gravis and Multiple Sclerosis in the same therapeutic group as he found thiamin was the key to the therapy. M.G. is a genetically transmitted disease and M.S. is triggered by a virus and mimics poliomyelitis. Nerve damage in M.S. is due to microscopic hemorrhages in the nervous system. During healing, scar tissue contracts clamping off capillary flow and nutrition. This wasting results in loss of the myelin sheath protection.
He felt that remyelinating these damaged nerves was every bit as hopeful as the myelination that occurs normally in infancy with nothing more spectacular than breast milk. It requires two years of treatment to repair the damage caused by one year of the disease.
He cites works in the late 1930s by Stern at Columbia University who used thiamin intraspinally for the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis with astonishing results. After 30 mg of thiamin was injected into the spinal canal of paralyzed MS. victims, they had a temporary remission. They could walk for a while. And Stern felt it was a B1 avitaminosis. It was known at that time that polyneuritis can cause degeneration of myelin sheaths.” Frederick Klenner M.D. (comments abbreviated, summarized and annotated by Lendon H. Smith, M.D.)
Note that the aim of this site is to provide a starting point for health and healing research for ill people; especially very overwhelmed and disabled ill people. This site provides recommendations, summaries and reviews of books but is not meant to be a replacement for actually reading some of these wonderful health books if the reader is at all well enough to do so. (Plus getting individualised advice from a doctor that is also an orthomolecular medicine expert if possible). There is no substitute for reading as many of these books as you can. The HHH site can only really hint at their full brilliance. The amount of insight, scientific references, logic, intelligence, compassion and experience in the recommended books will most likely amaze you. HHH aims to encourage people to do their own reading and learning, and to always make up their own minds. All content copyright Jodi Bassett 2006 - 2014.