Health, Healing & Hummingbirds

Scientific information on improving serious disease through nutrition and treating the causes of disease
 – summarised from 100 of the world’s most cutting-edge health books

The minerals

This page features more information on:

  • Magnesium and calcium
  • Manganese
  • Selenium
  • Boron
  • Molybdenum
  • Chromium
  • Iodine
  • Potassium and unrefined sea salt
  • Zinc
  • Other trace minerals

For more in-depth information on reaching cell saturation with magnesium and the different types of magnesium available, please also see the separate Magnesium paper.

Magnesium and calcium

Magnesium improves mitochondrial function and cardiac/muscle function (magnesium is the hearts most important mineral), helps the body metabolise sugar, treats leg cramps, improves asthma and PMS mood swings. Magnesium is an essential mineral involved in over 300 enzyme actions in the body. Magnesium is essential for normal heart function, nerve impulse transmission, muscle relaxation and calcium management.


Magnesium can be taken orally in the form of tablets, capsules, powders or liquids, administered via injection or IV, or absorbed transdermally (through the skin). Magnesium is absorbed very poorly orally (although liquids are absorbed better than tablets or capsules), moderately well transdermally (more than twice as well with direct skin contact than with baths), and at a very high rate through injections and IVs.


Tests for magnesium levels are available, but magnesium experts suggest that the best test is to take magnesium for 1 - 3 months and see if you feel better on it. Most people are deficient in magnesium and will benefit from taking larger amounts of magnesium for 1 - 3 months (or 12 months or more if only oral supplements are taken) to fully replenish their magnesium levels and to reach 'cell saturation.' Magnesium levels should always be raised gradually.


Once maximum benefits have been realised from higher doses of magnesium, the dose can be lowered to a maintenance dose. This may be 400 - 600 mg or a somewhat higher dose, depending on your individual need. At this time it is important to make sure you take calcium and magnesium in a 1:2 ratio, in favour of magnesium. (Or if you prefer, a 1:3 ratio in favour of magnesium, as suggested by Dr Carolyn Dean; you need to use your own judgement here.).

Also note that according to the book 'The Vitamin D Cure' it is important NOT to take more than 600 mg of calcium daily, if your vitamin D levels are optimal (above 40 ng/ml). Vitamin D increases the absorption rate of calcium, as does magnesium. So this could mean taking 600 mg of calcium daily and 1200 mg of magnesium, for example, if you followed the 1:2 ratio. 


Magnesium is involved in the production of ATP and is also a muscle and brain relaxer. Some patients take their last dose of magnesium late at night as they find it helps them sleep, while others make sure to take their last dose by late afternoon lest it leave them feeling too energised to sleep.

Common forms of supplemental calcium are calcium citrate, angstrom calcium and calcium AEP. Note that most calcium is only 4 – 10% absorbed, but angstrom calcium (and magnesium) is almost 100% absorbed due to its small size and so the doses used are much much lower than with other forms (eg, 20 mg or less).

Angstrom-sized calcium is at a particle size between a nanometer and picometer and fully absorbed at the cellular level. It’s taken in small dosages and there is nothing left over to calcify any part of the body. Taking calcium in supplemental form only as angstrom calcium, and avoiding all other calcium supplements, makes an enormous amount of sense.

For information on reaching cell saturation with magnesium and the different types of magnesium available, see the separate Magnesium paper.


Manganese is an essential mineral found in trace amounts in tissues of the body. It is known as a cell-protector. Most of the 10 – 20 mg of manganese in the body is contained in bone, the liver and the kidneys. Manganese is essential to several critical enzymes necessary for energy production, bone and blood formation, nerve function and protein metabolism. It is involved in the metabolism of fats and glucose, the production of cholesterol and it allows the body to use vitamin B1 and vitamin E. It is also involved in the building and degrading of proteins and nucleic acid, biogenic amine metabolism, which involves the transmitting of nerve impulses. Manganese is very important in seizure disorders as it lessens seizure activity and lowers the threshold for seizures. Manganese promotes healthy DNA and RNA and reduces cell damage. Manganese is an important antioxidant as it is one of the minerals required to form SOD (superoxide dismutase) which protects against cell-damaging free radicals.


The usual therapeutic dosage of manganese is generally 2 –  11 mg. Some experts recommend doses as high as 15 – 50 mg (particularly when treating a deficiency). A daily intake of 50 mg daily is generally considered safe. Zinc and vitamin C aid absorption of manganese. Hair elements tests can be used to check manganese levels. Dr Atkins recommends that the dosage of manganese not be looked at in a vacuum. He recommends that manganese should be taken with 2 – 5 times as much zinc. For example, a good ratio would be 10 mg of manganese taken with 50 mg of zinc, or 12 mg of manganese taken with 60 mg of zinc.


Accumulation in people with cirrhosis or liver failure may contribute to neurological problems and Parkinson's disease-like symptoms. Click here for more information or see The Vita-Nutrient Solution and Fire your Doctor: How to be Independently Healthy.


Selenium is an essential mineral which works closely with vitamin E. The antioxidant properties of selenium are related to this interaction as well as its active selenoprotein involvement in glutathione metabolism. These activities make selenium one of the most important antioxidant and immune system boosting nutrients. Selenium is also necessary for thyroid health as it is involved in converting T4 into T3.


The therapeutic dosage of selenium from diet and supplements is 200 - 400 mcg. This is a very safe but effective dose. (Total ingestion of selenium from diet and supplements should not exceed 750 mcg, and some sensitive individuals should not exceed 600 mcg. Doses over 750 mcg should be used under a doctor's supervision only. Selenium can cause serious problems if too much is taken. It has a far smaller therapeutic window than most nutrients. Pregnant women must be especially careful to monitor their intake of high selenium foods such as brazil nuts, as well as take lower strength selenium supplements than other women.)


Brazil nuts are very high in selenium. Brazil nuts may contain as much as 544 micrograms of selenium per 30 grams (1 ounce). Eating a few of these nuts each day can easily make up for a taking a multivitamin that is low in selenium and should always be taken into account when determining your daily selenium needs from supplementation. Click here for more information or see The Vita-Nutrient Solution and Fire your Doctor: How to be Independently Healthy.


Boron is a trace mineral as fundamental to bone health as calcium and magnesium. The usual therapeutic dosage of boron is generally 3 mg.


Molybdenum is an essential trace mineral and may be useful in the treatment of certain cardiovascular conditions, asthma, allergies and mercury toxicity. Molybdenum helps detoxification.  Molybdenum is a vital part of three important enzyme systems - xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and sulfite oxidase - and so has a vital role in uric acid formation, iron utilization, carbohydrate metabolism, and sulfite detoxification. Molybdenum strengthens teeth.


The therapeutic dosage of molybdenum is generally 100 - 1000 mcg or more, although sometimes much higher doses are used in detoxification programs. Dr Atkins recommends 200 – 500 mcg daily for healthy people and doses of up to 2000 mcg for those battling chemical sensitivities or yeast infections. Molybdenum should be avoided by those with gout. 


Chromium is an essential trace element involved with proper metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids in the body. The therapeutic dosage of chromium is generally 200 - 600 mcg. More chromium is needed where there are problems with blood sugar control and glucose tolerance. Where these problems are milder, 200 – 300 mcg may suffice.

Chromium should be taken under medical supervision in people with diabetes taking blood sugar lowering drugs or insulin injections as chromium supplementation may mean that the dosages of some of these drugs can be, and will need to be, lowered. 


Iodine is an essential element. Although its main function is in the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland, other organs in the body have a need for iodine in order to function normally.


Iodine also plays an important role in any detoxification or immune system strengthening program as well as in treating and preventing fibrocystic disease of the breast and ovarian cysts. Iodine will shrink fibrocystic breast lumps, fibroids, and ovarian cysts, reduce the risk of certain cancers and is particularly important for the health of the adrenal gland.


A mixture of iodine (Lugol’s) and DMSO applied topically every day for several months is an effective treatment for fungal toenail infections and may also improve keloid scars or boils.


In the article Iodine: The Miracle Mineral by Chris D. Meletis ND, he explains:


Iodine is an element in the halogen family, members of which also include fluorine, chlorine, bromine and astatine. These other halogens can compete with iodine for uptake from the intestines and can replace iodine in physiological reactions. Bromine and chlorine are both widespread environmental contaminants. In addition to its use as a flame retardant, bromine has also replaced iodine as a dough softener in bread making. Animal models indicate that with increased intake, bromide replaces iodine in the thyroid. Bromide treatment in iodine-deficient rats induces hypothyroid symptoms including decreased T4 and increased thyroid gland size. Similarly, animal models have shown that bromine can induce goiter, decrease iodine concentration in the thyroid and increase iodine excretion.12
     Also, research indicates that supplementation with iodine and selenium decreased the amount of bromine taken up by the thyroid gland by 50 percent compared to non-supplemented rats. Iodine deficiency is at epidemic proportions and iodine deficiency or sub-clinical deficiency is more common than previously believed. Due to the variety of health conditions associated with this deficiency, taking an iodine sufficiency test to determine iodine status and optimizing iodine levels with Iodoral, ATP Cofactors and selenium should be considered as part of any health maintenance plan.


Symptoms and signs of low iodine levels include goiter, dry eyes, hair loss, brittle hair and nails, slow pulse, constipation, dry mouth, dry skin with a decreased ability to sweat, decreased stomach acid, ovarian or breast cysts and poor thyroid function. Iodine is essential for proper temperature control.


When thyroid levels have been shown to be low, this may be an indication that an iodine loading test may be necessary. The 24-hour iodine sufficiency test (a simple urine test available for around $100 from companies such as VRP, with a doctor’s consent) indicates whether or not additional iodine supplementation may be beneficial. Testing should then be repeated after 4-6 months to monitor proper iodine doses.


Low iodine levels most often cause low thyroid output, but in some cases can cause hyperthyroidism.


If the tests shows that iodine supplementation is necessary, the types of iodine usually recommended to take are Lugol's and Iodoral (Iodoral is Lugol’s iodine is tablet form). The non-radioactive, inorganic iodine, as in Lugol's / Iodoral, is very safe and does not build up in the body as any excess is excreted by the kidneys within 24 hrs. (This is why the iodine loading test is so accurate as an indicator of whole-body iodine levels.)


Some doctors recommend nascent iodine as the best quality iodine supplement and consider it far superior to Lugol’s, especially where the patients is very sensitive to supplements and medications. The therapeutic dose is also lower with nascent iodine. Mark Sircus writes,


Nascent iodine contains approximately 400 mcg per drop so 10 drops is 4 mg and 100 drops is only 40 so it’s safe to take much higher dosages than is suggested on the bottle. It is very important to remember though that one should not shoot straight up to these dosage levels. One should start at low dosages and monitor for detox reactions.
     Dr. Abrahams recommends taking 50 mg of Iodine/Iodide as Lugol’s solution (8 drops) daily for 3 months as a loading dose. Lugol’s solution is available online at varying concentrations. Then his recommendation is that dose should be gradually reduced to the 12.5 mg (2 drops) maintenance dosage under the supervision of a knowledgeable health care professional. Dr Abrahams feels that 14 to 15 mg. of iodine/iodide daily is the upper maximum of safety for long term use. This is close to Dr. James Howenstine’s (another prominent iodine advocate) recommended dose of 12.5 mg daily.


One producer of nascent iodine explains that nascent iodine is consumable iodine in its atomic form rather than its molecular form. It is an iodine atom that has an incomplete number of electrons. It is paramagnetic; the iodine atoms can hold an electromagnetic charge. This “charged” state is held by the atom until diluted in water and consumed, whereby it gradually loses energy over a 2-3 hour time span. During this time, nascent iodine is recognized by the body as the same iodine that is produced by the thyroid and is absorbed effortlessly by the body. (The body has to expend energy to use the Lugol’s form of iodine, another reason that nascent iodine is a better choice in M.E.)


Small frequent doses should be taken on an empty stomach. Dosage is usually 3-5 drops taken 3-5 times daily. Patients that cannot afford to take the more expensive nascent form of iodine long-term may wish to at least begin iodine supplementation with this safer and gentler form, before switching to Lugol’s.


Dr Brownstein writes,


Food that is present in the digestive tract will oxidize iodine to iodide, which is not corrosive to the gastrointestinal tract.  Oral iodine appears to be inactivated by combination with gastrointestinal contents.  Absorption is poor due to rapid conversion of iodine to iodide[ii] and this might explain why one needs to take very high doses of Iodoral or Lugol's compared to Nascent Iodine, which seems to bypass the digestive tract altogether, meaning its absorption starts right in the mouth and continues through direct penetration of the stomach tissues.


Iodine supplements may enhance the response of the body to thyroid hormones and so the dose of thyroid replacement medications may have to be lowered once iodine supplementation has begun. Iodine supplementation over 1 mg should be prescribed only if indicated by the results of iodine testing.


Iodine plays a role in helping the body to sweat and so is recommended for patients using FIR saunas.


The optimal requirement of the whole human body for iodine has never been studied, and RDA amounts are based on the small amounts needed to prevent goiter etc. Therefore, the optimal amount of this element needed for physical and mental wellbeing is unknown. The mainland Japanese consumed roughly 3 to 10 mg daily and they are one of the healthiest people on planet earth (based on demographic studies).


Table salt is not necessary for good health and should be eliminated from the diet completely or as much as is possible. It is an unnatural and highly refined product. This includes iodised table salts. (Iodised table salts contain very small amounts of iodine which are not very available to the body. It is enough to prevent goiter, but nowhere near enough to provide the optimum levels of iodine the body needs.)


Iodine expert Dr David Brownstein promotes the use of magnesium as a supplement “synergistic” to treatment with iodine and also recommends that patients take extra selenium with iodine. He explains,


As with using any nutritional supplement, a comprehensive holistic treatment plan provides the best results. Magnesium is an important part of the iodine treatment plan. Magnesium deficiency is very common. Magnesium is nature’s relaxing agent. Magnesium levels (via red blood cell magnesium levels) should be assessed and supplementation instituted. Magnesium supplementation will likely ensure optimal results with iodine.


Dr Brownstein notes that around 5% of patients may experience side effects from iodine supplementation, these include; acne, a metallic taste in mouth, sneezing, excess saliva and frontal sinus pressure. Iodine can also cause a detox reaction if it is started at too high a dose, and without a basic nutritional program being implemented first. Iodine supplementation should be started at a low dose and this dose raised only slowly to minimise the risk of side effects. Very sensitive patients should at least begin treatment with nascent type of iodine.


Iodine taken after the evening meal may interfere with sleep, and so iodine is best taken earlier in the day if possible.

Potassium and unrefined sea salt

The best way to get adequate postassium is from diet and supplements are not usually necessary.

Increased natural/untreated salt intake is recommended by several M.E. experts however, along with other electrolytes, to help increase blood volume. Low circulating blood volume is well-documented in M.E. This type of salt also helps support adrenal function, immune system function and brain function. 1 tsp of salt daily in total is probably sufficient. Extra salt is also often recommended for POTS patients.

(Note, however, that Cheney recommends ¼ to ½ of a teaspoon of sea salt be dissolved in a glass of water and taken two or three times a day to help boost blood volume. So this may mean up to 1 ½ teaspoons of salt daily. He recommends patients start with the lower dose and work up.).


If you are drinking a lot of water and still feel thirsty, this may be a sign you need more electrolytes. Without enough electrolytes in your water, drinking large amounts of water can actually leave you feeling even more thirsty. Some M.E. patients like to make their own blood-volume-boosting electrolyte drink to take on waking, and anytime they need an urgent boost (as described previously). Ideally, potassium levels would be monitored periodically while this treatment is undertaken. Electrolyte drink mixes are available to buy but are often far more expensive, less potent and full of aspartame and other fillers (and refined salt).


Potassium levels should be monitored carefully, and extra potassium given, if you are taking liquorice or the drug Florinef. (Note that Florinef is NOT recommended.)



Zinc is an essential trace mineral. There are over 70 metalloenzymes known to require zinc for their functions. Zinc is involved in protein synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism, and is a constituent of insulin. Zinc is involved in the health of the immune system, assists vitamin A utilisation and is involved in the formation of bone and teeth. Zinc is critical to wound healing, and surgery or trauma can decrease the level of zinc in the body.


The article Zinc and the Zinc Taste Test (produced by a company called Dietary Research Limited in the UK) explains that,


Zinc is an essential trace element.  It is one of the most important of the trace elements needed by the body. Of the many hundreds of protein enzymes present in the body, which allow its chemistry to work, zinc is required by over two hundred of them. It can thus be seen how a deficiency of zinc can affect so many different functions. Zinc deficiency can result in many symptoms, including: loss of appetite, growth retardation, diarrhoea, tremor, hair loss, dandruff, a dry skin rash, white lines on fingernails, increased allergic sensitivity, disturbance of menstrual periods, pre-menstrual syndrome, delay of wound healing, loss of taste or smell sensation, dyslexia, poor night vision, photophobia (sensitivity to light), depression, sleep disturbance, hyperactivity, reduced fertility, loss of sex drive, pre-eclampsia (toxaemia) of pregnancy and post-natal depression.

     It has been observed that those suffering with any of the auto-immune diseases (such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, etc); atopic problems (allergy, eczema, asthma or migraine); or many of the inflammatory diseases (such as osteo-arthritis, M.E. or irritable bowel syndrome), have a consistent, and often severe, zinc deficiency, which is greatly benefited by a programme of zinc replacement therapy.
     Zinc is of vital importance in MS and other auto-immune diseases, partly because of its effect in promoting the production of PGs but, more importantly perhaps, because, by acting in its capacity as an antioxidant co-factor in the enzyme, superoxide dismutase, it helps maintain the integrity of the essential fatty acids that contribute to the regeneration of the myelin.

Various zinc preparations may be used, including possibly chelated zinc, zinc citrate, zinc picolinate, or zinc gluconate.  Zinc sulphate is the most common (and cheapest) presentation but should be avoided due to the frequent occurrence of gastric irritation and dyspepsia. 


The best method of accurately determining zinc status is through measuring white blood cell levels. Serum zinc is routinely used as a screening tool however as it is a cheaper test. Hair tests can be an unreliable test of zinc status as elevated hair zinc may be indicative of low zinc in the cells or contamination from the use of zinc-containing shampoos, although low zinc levels shown on a hair test is likely to be indicative of poor zinc status. White spots on the nails are a sign of a zinc deficiency.


The zinc taste test appears to be of some value in determining general zinc status. Food and drink should be avoided one hour before the test. A room temperature solution of zinc sulphate in purified water should be prepared at a concentration of 1gm/litre. (The solution can be kept for 6 months if refrigerated, but should be left at room temperature for 2 hours before it is used for testing.) 5 – 10 ml of this solution should be held in the mouth for exactly 10 seconds.


The article Zinc and the Zinc Taste Test explains that,

This simple and non-toxic test was devised and developed by Professor Derek Bryce-Smith, Professor of Biochemistry at Reading University.  Professor Bryce Smith is an established authority on zinc and numerous other biochemical topics. For the zinc taste test, the defined standards are:

Grade one response: no specific taste sensation: tastes like plain water. This indicates a major deficiency of zinc

Grade two response: no immediate taste is noticed but, within the ten seconds of the test, a 'dry' or 'metallic' taste is experienced. This indicates a moderate deficiency.

Grade three response: an immediate slight taste is noted, which increases with time over the ten second period. This indicates a deficiency of minor degree.

Grade four response: an immediate, strong and unpleasant taste is experienced. This indicates that no zinc deficiency exists. If this is the response to the first test done then obviously the diet already contains sufficient zinc and no supplement need be taken. If this is the response, however, after a period of zinc supplementation then the diet, prior to the supplement being given, must be assumed to have been deficient. Thus, if a relapse to this deficient state is to be further prevented a regular maintenance dose of zinc is required. One 15-20mg dose per day is usually sufficient for this purpose.


The therapeutic dosage of zinc is 30 – 60 mg. A zinc dosage of 50 mg or more should be worked up to over several weeks, rather than begun at this dosage level. Chronic ingestion of more than 100 mg of zinc daily may be immunosuppressive. Zinc should be limited to 100 mg daily, from all sources. Zinc lozenges, and to a lesser extent liquids, are better absorbed than zinc tablets.

For more information on zinc supplementation please see the excellent Zinc and the Zinc Taste Test article or the books The Vita-Nutrient Solution and Fire your Doctor: How to be Independently Healthy.

Other trace minerals

The following trace mineral products may be useful:


IntraMIN is a 100% organic liquid trace mineral supplement containing 70+ trace minerals that are super hypo-allergenic, drug free, and preservative free. It is said to be well tolerated by even the most chemically sensitive individuals. This product conatins the same trace minerals found in unrefined sea salt but in a more concentrated and possibly better absorbed form. Dr Sherry Rogers recommends this product.

A trace mineral product such as LEF’s Trace Minerals may be helpful if your multivitamin product doesn’t contain quite enough zinc, manganese, molybdenum and so on. Dr Sherry Rogers explains that the fact this product has copper as copper glucinate in it means that it isn't the dangerous form of copper used in many cheap and nasty supplements, and so is very safe to take.

Biosil (silicon) is recommended as an ‘electrical system’ booster by experts such as Dr Atkins and Dr Sherry Rogers. Biosil also greatly improves hair, nails and skin. Dr Atkins recommends 3 – 6 mg daily. Dr Sherry Rogers recommends Biosil drops.

Germanium is an antioxidant found in garlic, comfrey, aloe vera and ginseng and is thought to promote health through its ability to regulate the uptake of oxygen in the cells (thus increasing cellular energy etc.). Note that the water-soluble trace mineral germanium, if taken, should only ever be in the organic Ge-132 form according to Dr Atkins. He also recommends that no more than 25 – 300 mg be taken daily. Around 1 mg daily may be obtained through eating germanium-rich foods. Before taking supplemental germanium it is recommended that patients first take a hair elements test.

Low doses of trace minerals such as Lithium and (organic) Germanium, as indicated by a hair elements test.

Unrefined sea salt is also a good source of trace minerals.

A note on dosage

Note that the above dosage information given above is not necessarily what should be expected to be in any multivitamin, it refers to the therapeutic dosage (and safe upper limits) of each vitamin overall. The amounts of each mineral in a good quality multivitamin and mineral product may suffice, or additional supplementation may also be required for some minerals, depending on the desired dosage. Individual mineral supplements should NOT be taken unless one is also taking a good quality (multivitamin and) multimineral product.


To read at length about the different roles and benefits of zinc, manganese, selenium, chromium and molybdenum (and the different forms of each mineral) and so on, please see the books on nutritional medicine in the references section, most notably: The Vita-Nutrient Solution and Fire your Doctor: How to be Independently Healthy.


Copper must be kept in balance as an excess can increase free radical activity, and cause tissue damage. There is a much smaller difference between a healthy level and a too-high level with copper than there is for many other minerals. The same is true for iron, and this is why copper- and iron-free multivitamins are most often recommended.


High copper and iron can put a person at grave risk for heart disease and blocked arteries and at an increased risk for cancer. High copper levels can cause migraines and eye damage. Iron can cause feed bacterial infections. Women are more susceptible to high copper levels than men and so it is even more important that women buy copper-free supplements unless testing indicates a copper deficiency. Some people, those with copper water pipes in particular, already have high copper levels. Copper is highest in foods such as soy, nuts and seeds and for most, dietary intake is probably adequate.


Copper from cheap and nasty multivitamin products such as Centrum is to be avoided at all costs. It is far better to take no vitamins at all, or to take good quality vitamins just a few times a week than to use a products such as this one which contain a toxic form of copper. Studies have shown that Centrum provides NO health benefits and it is known that this type of inorganic copper is linked to Alzheimers disease.


Iron should only be taken where low iron levels have been shown on testing. Testing for iron levels may be indicated where periods are very heavy and/or where the diet is entirely vegetarian. If testing via a serum ferritin test indicates that iron supplementation is necessary, the only form safe to take is heme iron (as a stand-alone supplement). Synthetic non-heme iron can accumulate in the body to harmful effect while heme iron does not have this problem. Synthetic non-heme iron is the type included in most iron-containing supplements and multivitamins as it is cheaper. This type of iron also destroys vitamin E. Another reason to buy iron-free supplements. Vitamins C and A help you absorb more iron from your food (eg. red meat). Calcium taken at the same time as iron containing foods blocks absorption of iron.


Watch out for multivitamin products which contain cysteine, TMG, lipoic acid, garlic, Echinacea and/or mushroom extracts. Cysteine and TMG may be very poorly tolerated in M.E., and other diseases which cause sensitivities, and lipoic acid and garlic may only be okay at lower doses and if this dose is worked up to slowly.

Some further reading

Extra reading on iodine

Dr David Brownstein’s book IODINE: Why you need it Why you can't live without it

Clinical Experience with Inorganic Non-radioactive Iodine/Iodide (article) by Dr Brownstein

Epidemic of Bromine Toxicity by Dr Brownstein.

Iodine - Bring Back the Universal Medicine (e-book) Mark Sircus, Ac., OMD

Iodine Phobia and Salt Truth Mark Sircus, Ac., OMD

Iodine (I) - General Discussion from the DC Nutrition website.

Iodine: The Miracle Mineral by Chris D. Meletis, ND

The Iodine 4 website.

The Wonders of Iodine by Jonathan V. Wright, M.D. Nutrition & Healing, 11/1/2002 Newsletter

Iodine sufficiency of the whole human body, Effect of daily ingestion of Iodoral  and The safe and effective implementation of orthoiodosupplementation in medical practice  by Dr Guy Abraham

Goitre and upset iodine metabolism and Iodine and trace elements in the promotion and maintenance of metabolic excellence by Dr Myers.

Iodine – An Important Mineral Today by Lawrence Wilson, MD


See also:

Ovarian iodide uptake and triiodothyronine generation in follicular fluid. The enigma of the thyroid ovary interaction, A.B. ´ Slebodzi´nski, Professor emeritus

Breast Cancer and Iodine: How to Prevent and How to Survive Breast Cancer by David M. Derry MD

The Story of Iodine Deficiency : An International Challenge in Nutrition by Basil S. Hetzel

Werner & Ingbar's The Thyroid: A Fundamental and Clinical Text, 8th edition (The classic text on the thyroid used by endocrinologists. Excellent chapters on various topics by different authors, according to the Iodine 4 Health website.)

A review of the latest information on iodine and the thyroid and a preliminary report of my clinical trial, Iodine and Fibrocystic Disease and Thyroid, the most common hormone problem by Dr David Beaulieu

A Rebuttal of Dr. Gaby's Editorial on Iodine by Guy E. Abraham, MD and David Brownstein, MD

Orthoiodosupplementation in a primary care practice and Iodine Insufficiency FAQ Flechas JD

The Great Iodine Debate by Sally Fallon Morell   

Iodine can be concentrated in the ovaries, and Russian studies done some years ago showed a relationship between iodine deficiency and the presence of cysts in the ovaries. The greater the iodine deficiency, the more ovarian cysts a woman produces. In its extreme form, this condition is known as polycystic ovarian disease. Iodine and trace elements in the promotion and maintenance of metabolic excellence.


Iodine stabilizes the heart rhythm, lowers blood pressure, and is known to make the blood thinner as well, judging by longer clotting times seen by clinicians. Iodine is not only good for the cardiovascular system, it is vital. Dr. Michael Donaldson


When using the Nascent Iodine one can dose pulse every two hours orally taking each individual dose up to as many as 20 drops and even at this level we are nowhere near points of iodine toxicity and tolerance. Mark Sircus, Ac., OMD


A great feeling of security for a parent comes from administering a medicinal like iodine. It is what I give my children instead of dangerous antibiotics when they are sick. It is what I use when the first symptoms of flu approach and it does spare one the worst of that misery. Mark Sircus, Ac., OMD


Iodine is the trigger mechanism for apoptosis (that natural death of cells) and the main surveillance mechanism for abnormal cells in the body.  Iodine triggers the death of cells which are abnormal or which have normal programmed death as part of their life cycle. David M. Derry MD


Of all the elements known so far to be essential for health, IODINE is the most misunderstood. Yet, it is by far the safest of all the trace elements known to be essential for human health. It is the only trace element that can be ingested safely in amounts up to 100,000 times the RDI. It is estimated by myself and other clinicians that probably 90% or more of the population of the United States is grossly deficient in Iodine. In fact, it must be noted that Iodine is the single most deficient nutrient in the world --- with approximately 70% of the world's population deficient. The collective experience of many medical clinicians over 3 generations has shown that Iodine therapy in the range of 12.5mg to 50mg daily doses to be safe and effective in treating signs and symptoms of Iodine deficiency. The current recommended daily intake (RDI) is only 150 micrograms (.15 mg). This is hardly enough Iodine for the Thyroid gland let alone the rest of the body. W. W. Greene, D.C.


Based on numerous studies, optimum supplementation of Iodine is also highly recommended for those patients who are receiving Thyroid Hormone therapy. It is also interesting to note that the mammary glands are the tissues most often found in the body to “compete” effectively with the Thyroid Gland for Iodine; hence 50% or more women in the U. S. have been diagnosed with Fibrocystic Breast Disease. Iodine supplementation will cure this problem in 6 to 8 weeks. And, it was shown in JAMA, 1976 (Journal of the American Medical Association) that if women who have Iodine deficiencies are prescribed T4 thyroid medication (Synthroid & Levoxyl), this T4 medication further increases their risk for Breast Cancer. This same association has also been shown when women have been prescribed Armour’s Thyroid. W. W. Greene, D.C.


Recent studies indicate that the essential element selenium is a component of the enzyme responsible for converting thyroxine to T3. It remains to be determined whether the systemic utilization of iodine is impaired in subjects deficient in selenium.  Iodine (I) - General Discussion from the DC Nutrition website.


Medical Iodophobia is the unwarranted fear of using and recommending inorganic, non-radioactive iodine/iodide within the range known from collective experience of three generations of clinicians to be the safest and most effective amounts for treating symptoms and signs of iodine/iodide deficiency (12.5-50 mg./day). Dr. Guy Abraham, 2004


The [RDA for iodine] levels were set up to prevent goiter only without concern for other body tissue requirements.National Health & Nutrition Survey (NHANES) showed that iodine levels in the United States

declined 50% while thyroid illness, breast, prostate, endometrial and ovarian cancers increased. The World Health Organization (WHO) claims that an iodine deficiency is the world’s greatest single cause of preventable mental retardation. 72% of the world’s population is affected by iodine deficiency. Why iodine?


In addition to fixing almost all cases of breast cysts, iodine also has a remarkable healing effect on ovarian cysts, and even on skin cysts. (For the latter, I recommend rubbing in iodine right over the cyst.) Iodine (I) - General Discussion from the DC Nutrition website.


Dr. Abraham believes the dose of iodine for maintaining sufficiency of the whole body is at least 13 mg per day (100 times the paltry RDA) – six mg for the thyroid, five mg for the breasts, and two mg for the rest of the body. Men would likely need less, though not always. Iodine (I) - General Discussion from the DC Nutrition website.


“Iodine deficiency may cause the ovaries to develop cysts, nodules and scar tissue. At its worst this ovarian pathology is very similar to that of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). As of the writing of this article I have five PCOS patients. The patients have successfully been brought under control with the use of 50 mg of iodine per day. Control with these patients meaning cysts are gone, periods every 28 days and type 2 diabetes mellitus under control.” Orthoiodosupplementation in a primary care practice Flechas, J.D.


As I started to use larger doses of iodine (12.5-50mg/day), I began to see positive results in my patients. Goiters and nodules of the thyroid shrank. Cysts on the ovaries became smaller and began to disappear. Patients reported increased energy. Metabolism was increased as evidenced by my patients having new success in losing weight. Libido improved in men and women. People suffering with brain fog reported a clearing of their foggy feelings. Patients reported having vivid dreams and better sleep. Most importantly, those with chronic illnesses that were having a difficult time improving began to notice many of their symptoms resolving.”

     If there is severe deficiency, spot urine iodine levels at or near zero or low iodine loading tests results (<50% excretion), higher iodine levels are generally needed. To maximize absorption and retention of iodine, doses of 25-50mg may be needed in patients. Clinical Experience with Inorganic Non-radioactive Iodine/Iodide by Dr Brownstein, 2005


Iodine also helps remove all toxic substances from the body for similar reasons.  By enhancing thyroid activity, metabolism is stimulated or enhanced in a very healthful way.  This dramatically improves the body’s ability to remove toxic chemicals and other subtle toxins from the tissues. Lawrence Wilson MD